School Closures: Facing Challenges of Learning Loss in India

Published: April 18, 2022


  • Chandra B. P. SinghUniversity Deptartment of Psychology, T M Bhagalpur University, Bhagalpur-812007, Bihar, India
Learning loss, School closures, Digital tools, Online learning


Background: Learning losses does not mean forgetting only curricular learning but slipping back of fundamental learning abilities that learner would have acquired during schooling. School closures in India have severely disrupted learning processes of children resulting in learning losses and social gaps in academic outcomes. Though school closure is a global phenomenon, its adverse effects on learning outcomes are unevenly distributed in the society.

Purpose: The paper aims to trace the phenomenon of learning losses resulting from a prolonged school closures during COVID 19 pandemic at the national level since march 2020.The study further is directed to trace accessibilities and uses of digital resources in India.

Method: The study used secondary sources of data mainly of Bihar to ascertain the trend of learning losses. The data were regenerated to measure the emerging trend. Results: Learning loss was unevenly distributed in the society. Those who were digitally equipped had compensated their learning losses during school closures. The Bihar had mere 5 per cent computer and 15 internet facilities. The rural households had only 3 per cent computer and 13 per cent internet facilities. Primary grade children especially of disadvantaged groups in Bihar suffered more because they have very limited home learning resources. Learning crisis was more prominent at elementary school level where both the home resources and digital tools were inadequate. They spent hours in surfing social media for private purposes. The phenomenon of cyber loafing was widely seen among young students, showing a serious problem of internet abuse by secondary school students.

Conclusion: Despite constraints Bihar managed to continue school learning programme during COVID 19. It had a largest force of digitally-equipped teachers (about 1.25 lakh) known as Potential Learning Community (PLC) who were ready to deliver e-contents to beneficiaries. Teachers established connectivity with parents and learners who had no android mobile. They started running Schools on Mobile (SOM) classes. The paper discusses learning recovery plan such as engaging community, reallocating resources for schools, etc.


Azim Premji Foundation (2021). Loss of Learning During the Pandemic, 1-21, https://cdn.azimpremjiuniversity. Studies_Loss_of_Learning_during_the_Pandemic. f1622994202.pdf.

Blasko,Z., da Costa,P. & Schnef,S.V.(2021). Learning Loss and lnequalities in Europe: Mapping the Potential Consequences of COVID 19 Crisis, Discussion Series, 1-37, Retrieved

Banerji, R. (2020). Learning Loss and Learning Gains, RISE, Working Paper,

Lancet (2021). Reopening Schools after COVID 19 Closures: Report, 1-16,

NFHS (2019-20). National Family Health Survey-5, State Fact Sheet-Bihar,Ministry of Family and Health Welfare, 1-7. national-family-health-survey-5.

NSSO (2017-18). Household Social Consumption on Education in India ,75th round, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, GoI, 280-289. aspx?PRID=1593251.

Sudevan, P. (2020). National Technology Day, 2020, The Hindu, March 11. tech/national-technology-day-2020-all-you-need-toknow-2614877.html.

How to Cite

Chandra B. P. Singh. School Closures: Facing Challenges of Learning Loss in India. Issues Ideas Edu. 2022, 10, 13-19
School Closures: Facing Challenges of Learning Loss in India

Current Issue

ISSN Print2320-7655
ISSN Online2320-8805
RNI No.CHAENG/2013/49611
OA Policy

Publisher's policy of the journal at Sherpa UK for the submitted, accepted, and published articles. Click OAPolicy

Plan-S Compliance

To check compliance, one has to use the Journal Check Tool (JCT). This tool provided by cOAlition S (European funders) for the researchers (fundee) to check the compliance with the journal.

Recommend journal to your library

You can recommend the journal being a researcher or faculty member to your library. We will post a copy of the Journal to your library on your behalf at free of cost.
Click here: Recommend Journal

Preprint Arxiv Submission

The authors are encouraged to submit the author’s copy (preprint) to appropriate preprint archives e.g. and/or on or institutional repositories (e.g., D Space) before paper acceptance by the editor of Journal. After publications of the paper author(s) should mention the citation information, title and abstract along with DOI number of the publication carefully on the required page of the depository(ies).


Phone: +91-172-2741000, +91-172-4691800
Email :

Abstract and Indexing

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Articles in Journal of Issues and Ideas in Education (Issues Ideas Educ.) by Chitkara University Publications are Open Access articles that are published with licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- CC-BY 4.0 International License. Based on a work at This license permits one to use, remix, tweak and reproduction in any medium, even commercially provided one give credit for the original creation.

View Legal Code of the above-mentioned license,

View Licence Deed here

Creative Commons License

Journal of Issues and Ideas in Education by Chitkara University Publications is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at