Simeon-Fayomi B.C., cheatan, B.S. and Oludeyi, O.S.
Soft skills, employability, formal, non-formal, informal, youths, graduates
|PUBLISHED DATE||March 2018|
|PUBLISHER||The Author(s) 2018. This article is published with open access at www.chitkara.edu.in/publications|
Adult learning for skill acquisition, employability, professional development and self-sustenance are key issues in the current globalised and dynamic knowledge economy. Smooth and successful transition from school to work for young adults means that there is an appreciable match between skills acquired in the school and skills required in the labour market. Continuous adult learning, soft and transversal skills development are necessary for this transition. With background lessons from the winter school, this paper focuses on comparative approach to different types of soft skills in the circuit of formal, non-formal and informal models of adult learning. Various areas in the circuit, different positions and definitions are examined within the context of adult education professionalization. The paper concludes with implications for future practices in adult education profession, and especially for soft skills development among entry-level young adults in the labour market.
The on-going globalisation in education has further echoed the significance of adult and lifelong learning at the international front. The advent of information powered society and of knowledge economy is transforming the demands of labour market, and subsequently educational policies, practices and professionalization. Such economy is based on creating, evaluating, and trading knowledge; labour cost is less important and traditional economic concepts such as scarcity of resources and economies of scale become more unpopular (Hendarmana & Tjakraatmadja, 2012). All aspects of lives have been altered, courtesy of technological innovation and advancement in adult learning. Electronic literacy and information resources, rather than material resources, are now critical to both human and organisational survival. New technologies are introduced on continuous basis and skills now deteriorate very fast due to rapid technological change and increasing globalization (Karabchuk, & Shevchuk, 2014: 74).
These fundamental societal changes have transformed societies from industrial into post-industrial societies in which “continuous knowledge acquisition” plays a leading role in economic growth and wealth creation (Bois-Reymond, 2003). Consequently among adult learners, adult education providers and professionals, there has been heightened interests on what learning should be (what should be the content of learning), what skills should be acquired (generic or technical), in what contexts (in formal, non-formal or informal) and within what duration (terminal/time-bound or lifelong). The reality for young adult entering the labour market is factual: there is now urgent need for more flexibility for companies when creating job titles, more frequent developments in labour activity, modifications of workers responsibilities within the company and even within the economic sector as a whole (BatallaBusquets, & Pacheco-Bernal, 2013). Continuous skill acquisitions of general nature become more important to both organisations and youngsters in the labour market.
In addition to technical, subject and discipline-related skills (hard skills), social behaviour, soft and other transversal skills are in high demand by employers of labour as complementary skills to hard skills. Soft skills refer to behavioral competencies, interpersonal skills, people-centered learning skills or personal attributes that enhance an individual’s interactions, job performance and career prospects (Onabamiro, Onuka & Oyekanmi, 2014: Durowoju & Onuka, 2014) and are considered the most sought-after skills in labour market of today’s knowledge society (Durowoju & Onuka, 2014: 608). Unfortunately, these skills are seriously lacking in labour market (Pitan & Adedeji, 2012: 90) because the curricular framework of many Higher Education institutions (HEi) still focus more on subject-related knowledge with less practical training that focuses on acquisition of soft skills for employability of young graduates (Cinque, 2013; Giovannucci, & Cinque, 2013; Haselberger, Oberhuemer, Perez, Cinque, Capasso, 2012). The study programmes of most universities in Europe and especially in Africa are still rooted in traditional scientific learning methods and little attention is given to soft and complementary skills. In the words of Giovannucci, & Cinque, (2013) many employers in the United States and Europe often claim that university graduates are well prepared in their disciplines but lack general and transversal competencies such as communication, teamwork, work ethics and leadership (p.31). This lamentation is more intense in Africa (Aworanti, 2014; Durowoju & Onuka, 2014; Pitan & Adedeji, 2012). Citing many documents issued by the EU and other human resources experts, Giovannucci, & Cinque (2013) posit that soft skills are closely connected with employability, particularly for young people entering the labour market.
Although since the Bologna Declaration in 2009 (Cinque, 2013; Haselberger, et al, 2012), there has been remarkable efforts, among adult education providers and practitioners, towards embedding the contents of soft skills in the curricular design and didactics in European Higher Education Area (EHEA), people are still losing jobs because of shortfalls in required skills. Across the globe, about 202 million people were unemployed in 2013, an increase of 5 million compared with the year before (ILO, 2014). This global unemployment is more pervasive in the East Asia and South Asia regions, which together represent more than 45 per cent of additional jobseekers, followed by Sub-Saharan Africa (p.10). Resulting from these continued trends, global attention has been shifted to HE institutions to correct the trending mismatches between skills and jobs (Cinque, 2013). The notion is that companies need a more skilled workforce and opportunities should be given to young people to develop soft skills, such as entrepreneurial skills, coping skills (i.e. the capacity to deal with a problem in a creative way) learning to learn and other skills that will help university students to make a successful transition from full-time education to entering the labour market (Cinque, 2013). Are the outcomes of learning activities, leading to effective acquisition of soft skills, limited to classroom activities, given its generic, transversal and complementary nature? As a component of lifelong learning outcome, which has to do with acquisition of self-reliant skills, occupational competence and active citizenship, the circuit within which soft skills can be acquired spans beyond the formal HE institutions.
|ISSN||Print : 2320-7655, Online : 2320-8805|
The transition from agriculture and manufacturing centric to service sector led economy has led to a paradigmatic shift into the socio-economic condition of the human life. Such a shift, demands new ways of thinking, learning and living while emphasising continuous learning for young adults and continuing professional development for adult educators. Soft skills development has become a new mantra, for one’s survival in this competitive environment. In this paper, we have examined the type and process of skill acquisition across formal, in-formal and non-formal modes. Comparative examination of the types and process across these modes are examined with reference to cases from Europe (Czech Republic, Germany, Serbia, Portugal), Malaysia, Nigeria and India. Critical perspectives from the comparative study, has resulted in providing a new definition of soft skills as ‘social toolkits for success in everyday life in different contexts’. The paper points out the need for a ‘new’ professional i.e., an adult educator having multivariate skills in engaging with the ‘new’ adult learner, in the emerging ‘new’ economic context. It has become imperative for clarifying and identifying the ‘competency profile’ of adult learning professionals With growing demand for soft skills development particularly for young adults, adult and lifelong education needs to endorse some of the following recommendations: