ADDIE, Instructional Design, Training, In-Service, SPSS
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We exist in a technology era where everything is controlled via electronic devices and education is also highly impacted from ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools (Bates, 2000). The present study is an attempt to highlight the training need analysis approach and its applicability. Further, it focuses on the application of information and communication technology tools to analyze the data patterns during training need. ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation) approach has been chosen to explore the correlation between techniques/ approaches of training need analysis and evaluation of training program for n=100. The respondents have been surveyed to express their views on five levels of ADDIE Model. Further, an association has been explored between the demographics of trainers and design & development process of the training programs.
Education is provided by public and private institutions in India and it is the responsibility of central and state governments to provide educational facilities to compatriots. Since independence, different Commissions, Policies, Laws, Rules, and Regulations have been formulated both at the School level and at the level of higher education to improve the state of education. After independence, it was created by policymakers and in accordance with Article 45 of the Indian Constitution –
“The State shall endeavor to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years (MHRD, 2017).”
Articles 15, 16, 19, 28, 25, 29, 46, 146, 244, 330 and 335 of the Indian Constitution contain various constitutional provisions regarding education and equity. Despite all these constitutional and legislative provisions, the result is not as healthy as it should be. The child is at the center of our entire educational system and teachers play a fundamental rule in the formation of the child’s ideology. The quality of education depends to a large extent on the quality of its teachers, but this observation has not been extended to the intention that quality teachers come out from the institutions where scholastic teacher educators exist. A significant contribution to teacher preparation in developing teachers’ aptitude for examining teaching from the point of view of students brings different experiences and similarities in the classroom (Darling - Hammond, 2000). However, there are serious drawbacks in teacher preparation programs both in the service and before the service. Teachers’ education persists with low “ecological validity” and underlines the tensions in the selection and technical experience of DIET staff and in their attitudes towards basic teachers, which limit their engagement in local contexts (Dyer et al., 2004). According to Anurag Behar, CEO of the Azim Premji Foundation, there are four methods to improve our education system
- In order to perform better, the faculties must be paid better, which will then lead to improvement (Ballou & Podgursky, 1997).
- Governments should attempt and attract scholastic fraternity to become teachers. Coherent salary packages, high standard recruitment practices and conditions to support professional satisfaction are some key areas which should be kept in consideration.
- There is no alternate of a good teacher and the capacities of teachers must be developed to perform better via high quality teacher trainings. The teachers who are more prepared for teaching are more confident and successful with students than those who have had little or none (Darling - Hammond, 2000). The research also indicates that the reforms in teacher training creating more tightly integrated programs with specialized coursework on teaching and learning construct teachers who are more effective as well as more
2 http://www.livemint.com/Opinion/fneTCbkEoKXbS1DzaZur8M/How-to-improve - education.html
likely to come into and stay in teaching profession. The policies implemented by states regarding teacher training and professional development may create a significant difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their profession (Darling-Hammond, 2000). Policy recommendations encompass the development and upgrading of teacher training programs in India as well as other developing countries, along with thorough research into the demographic, structural, and cultural framework for each program and focusing on the advancement of teacher knowledge and aptitude in specific subject areas (Husen et al., 1978).
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The quality of education is abysmal and it is the onus of the Governments and the various bodies who plan the whole education system from school level to higher education. From the present study it has been identified that most of the faculty members who use Observation Method (55%), Interview Method (31%), Discussion Method (63%) or Questionnaire Method (0%) for Training Need Analysis take feedback of the training program from the participants but don’t measure the post training behaviour of the participants. Further, a significant change has not been identified in the teaching and learning behaviour of the faculties and students. It is observed that there is a significant relationship between approaches to Training Need Analysis (Observation, Interview, Discussion and Questionnaire) and evaluation of the training program. There is a need to apply quantitative techniques to capture data from the teaching fraternity that what sort of training needs is required (Bryman & Cramer, 1994; Allison, 2002)? Qualitative methods of data analysis - Observation, Discussion or Interview have some drawbacks in the sense that there might have been errors in collecting the information and further its interpretation, whereas Questionnaire method record data in a sequential manner and easy to analyze which provides deep insights into the data patterns. For the analysis of the collected data using any of the method, 11% of the faculty members apply MS Excel for synthesizing information whereas nobody applies SPSS or any other software package. It is quite evident from the study that very few faculty members use ICT tools like MS Excel/ SPSS for data analysis which shows a significant relationship between techniques of Training Need Analysis (MS Excel and SPSS) and evaluation of the training program. There is a need to put ICT tools into teaching/ learning practices which offers the coherent analysis of information and easy elucidation (Tondeur et al. 2007; Wastiau et al., 2013; Drent & Meelissen, 2008).
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